Effects of magnesium and its mechanism on the incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias following severe ischemia in isolated rat hearts

Abstract:
Magnesium sulfate (Mg) has been widely used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VF) in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanisms of prevention on the incidence of VF have not been defined. The aim of study was to investigate the role of Mg in the prevention of VF and the mechanism of […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium supplementation in the prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of magnesium in the prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients after heart surgery remains unknown. Therefore we prospectively examined the effect of magnesium treatment on the incidence of postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart defects.METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium treatment of ventricular arrhythmias

Abstract:
The association between marked hypomagnesemia and arrhythmias, particularly those associated with digitalis intoxication, has long been recognized. More recently, acute intervention with magnesium in patients who are not hypomagnesemic has demonstrated arrhythmia suppression in 3 settings: digitalis intoxication, long QT-related arrhythmias and arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction. Although the electrophysiologic effects of magnesium are […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

[Magnesium and arrhythmia]

Abstract:
Experimental and clinical studies have shown the antiarrhythmic activity of magnesium salts and the arrhythmogenic effect of hypomagnesemia. Both are observed mainly but not exclusively during treatment with digitalis. The Mg++ plays an essential role in transmembrane K+ exchange in that a deficit of magnesium leads to a loss of intracellular K+ which cannot […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Effect of acute magnesium administration on the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure

Summary:
Giving magnesium to patients with heart failure reduces the frequency of their arrhythmias.

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: There is a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in patients with heart failure. Unfortunately, currently available antiarrhythmic agents have only limited efficacy and may result in proarrhythmia and hemodynamic deterioration in these patients.METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium therapy of cardiac arrhythmias in critical-care medicine

Abstract:
A common complication of critically ill patients is cardiac tachyarrhythmia. The role played by magnesium is not well appreciated. Well-documented cases indicated that magnesium may be effective in controlling the rhythm when conventional methods fail. The following tachyarrhythmias respond favorably to magnesium: (1) intractable ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, whether hypo- or normomagnesemic, (2) torsades […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

[Significance of magnesium in cardiac arrhythmias]

Abstract:
Magnesium is of great importance in cardiac arrhythmias. It increases the ventricular threshold for fibrillation. Sinus node refractoriness and conduction in the AV node are both prolonged. Main indications for intravenous application of magnesium are Torsade de pointes tachycardias, digitalis toxicity induced tachyarrhythmias and multifocal atrial tachycardias. Additionally, patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Intravenous magnesium for cardiac arrhythmias: jack of all trades

Abstract:
Intravenous magnesium has been used to prevent and treat many different types of cardiac arrhythmia. It has diverse electrophysiological actions on the conduction system of the heart; including prolonging sinus node recovery time, and reducing automaticity, atrioventricular nodal conduction, antegrade and retrograde conduction over an accessory pathway, and His-ventricular conduction. Intravenous magnesium can also […]

By |October 18th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Low extracellular magnesium induces epileptiform activity and spreading depression in rat hippocampal slices

Abstract:
The effect of low extracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]o) on neuronal activity was studied in rat hippocampal slices. After 20-40 min of perfusion with Mg2+-free medium, when [Mg2+]o declined to approximately 0.1-0.4 mM, spontaneous field potentials developed in the CA1 and CA3 regions, but not in the dentate gyrus. In the CA3 pyramidal cell layer, […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Effect of magnesium chloride and magnesium L-aspartate on seizure threshold in rats under conditions of dietary magnesium deficiency

Abstract:
We studied the effect of Mg-L-aspartate, MgCL2, and their combinations with vitamin B6, magneB6, and MgSO4 on seizure threshold in rats with dietary Mg2+ deficiency. Mg2+ deficiency was followed by a decrease in the threshold dose of corazol (from 79.20 to 49.48 mg/kg), shortening of the latency of the first jerk (by 33.6%, p=0.012), […]

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Anticonvulsant effects of magnesium sulfate on hippocampal seizures: therapeutic implications in preeclampsia-eclampsia

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether magnesium sulfate has central anticonvulsant effects.STUDY DESIGN: In three experiments we investigated the anticonvulsant properties of magnesium sulfate on the hippocampus because of its high density of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and link to clinical epilepsy. Seizure activity was elicited in the hippocampus of rats or […]

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Dietary calcium and phosphorus and seizure susceptibility of magnesium deficient rats

Abstract:
Convulsions are characteristic of magnesium deficiency and hypocalcemia. In this study, weanling rats were fed magnesium deficient diets with varying concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. Diets were either normal (Mg =) or low (Mg-) in magnesium and were either low (Ca- or P-), normal (Ca = or P =) or high (Ca+ or P+) […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Natural approaches to epilepsy

Abstract:
This article reviews research on the use of diet, nutritional supplements, and hormones in the treatment of epilepsy. Potentially beneficial dietary interventions include identifying and treating blood glucose dysregulation, identifying and avoiding allergenic foods, and avoiding suspected triggering agents such as alcohol, aspartame, and monosodium glutamate. The ketogenic diet may be considered for severe, […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Plasma magnesium and calcium levels in children with epilepsy in lagos

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Magnesium and calcium have been found to have increasing roles in the patho-physiology of epilepsy. Hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia cause hyper-exitability of neurons and have been associated strongly with seizures in adults and children.OBJECTIVES: To determine if hypomagnesaemia or hypocalcaemia is present in Nigerian children with epilepsy and to determine the relationship between serum […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Plasma magnesium in adult Nigerian patients with epilepsy

Abstract:
UNLABELLED: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and epilepsy. The study was carried out at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Plasma magnesium was estimated using the calmigite dye colorimetric method in 45 adults with epilepsy and 35 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and albumin […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Neurological consequences of magnesium deficiency: correlations with epilepsy

Abstract:
1. The plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations of sheep have been manipulated by feeding liquid diets with various calcium and magnesium concentrations. 2. When the magnesium status of the diet was low, both plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations declined, but the decline in calcium was much more rapid and extensive when the content of […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium deficiency as a cause of acute intractable seizures

Abstract:
Clinical and experimental investigations have shown that magnesium depletion causes a marked irritability of the nervous system, eventually resulting in epileptic seizures. Although magnesium deficiency as a cause of epilepsy is uncommon, its recognition and correction may prove life-saving. Two case reports are presented which emphasize the importance of recognizing hypomagnesaemia in patients with […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Serum magnesium levels in idiopathic epilepsy

Summary:
Magnesium blood levels can be used to predict the frequency of epileptic seizures.

Abstract:
Fifty cases of idiopathic epilepsy and 25 age and sex matched normal healthy controls were studied. There was a significant fall in serum magnesium levels in idiopathic epilepsy on day one and 4 of the seizures (P < 0.01) as [...]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

The role of magnesium sulfate in prevention of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole in rats

Abstract:
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) has been used to prevent seizures in eclampsia. This study examined the central effects of MgSO₄ on different types of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Male Wistar rats were submitted to intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of MgSO₄ at different doses followed by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ. The latency to the onset of the first […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium as an effective adjunct therapy for drug resistant seizures

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To explore the use of magnesium (Mg), an endogenous ion and enzymatic co-factor used in a variety of medical applications, for the treatment of epileptic seizures resistant to traditional medical therapy.BACKGROUND: For almost a century, Mg has been used as prophylaxis and treatment of seizures associated with eclampsia. Mg is a CNS depressant, […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Effect of magnesium oxide on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs against experimental seizures in rats

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of oral magnesium oxide supplementation alone and on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the animal models of maximal electroshock seizures (MES) and chemically (pentylenetetrazole [PTZ])-induced seizures.METHODS: Healthy male albino rats were given magnesium oxide (MgO) supplementation orally in various doses (500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg /day) for […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Can magnesium supplementation reduce seizures in people with epilepsy? A hypothesis

Abstract:
Magnesium is required for over 300 enzyme systems and is critical for many cellular functions including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, DNA transcription and protein synthesis. Studies suggest that the modern Western diet and lifestyle may lead to magnesium deficiency, and this appears to be associated with a wide range of medical conditions. Magnesium deficiency decreases […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Beneficial effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and serum lipid profile

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have associated low dietary Mg2+ intake with insulin resistance (IR) and increased risk for metabolic syndrome; however, the effect of Mg2+ supplementation on IR has not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral Mg2+ supplementation on insulin sensitivity (IS) and serum lipids.MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty-eight patients with mild […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium responsiveness to insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in erythrocytes from normotensive and hypertensive subjects

Abstract:
Depletion of intracellular free magnesium (Mg(i)) is a characteristic feature of insulin resistance in essential hypertension, but it is not clear to what extent low Mg(i) levels contribute to insulin resistance, result from it, or both. As insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may improve insulin resistance, we investigated whether this peptide could similarly improve […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes

Abstract:
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the evidence for benefits of magnesium on metabolic abnormalities, inflammatory parameters, and cardiovascular risk factors and related-potential mechanisms. Controversy due to contrasting results in the literature is also discussed.RECENT FINDINGS: Increased dietary magnesium intake confers protection against the incidence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. It […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium deficiency modulates the insulin signaling pathway in liver but not muscle of rats

Abstract:
Altered insulin secretion and sensitivity have been observed in Mg-deficient animals. However, the effects of Mg deficiency and supplementation on intracellular signaling events triggered by insulin are unknown. Therefore, we studied the early steps of insulin action in muscle and liver of rats fed Mg-deficient (DF-6, DF-11) or control (CO-6, CO-11) diets for 6 […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Dietary magnesium prevents fructose-induced insulin insensitivity in rats

Abstract:
Increased dietary fructose may produce insulin insensitivity and elevate blood pressure in rats. It is possible that the reduced magnesium content of the high-fructose commercial diet used in some studies may play a role in these abnormalities because it is known that magnesium deficiency can produce insulin insensitivity and increased angiotensin II action in […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium may mediate the favorable impact of whole grains on insulin sensitivity by acting as a mild calcium antagonist

Abstract:
Recent epidemiology has linked high consumption of whole grains with reduced risk for diabetes, coronary disease, stroke, and various types of cancer; there is reason to suspect that improved insulin sensitivity is largely responsible for this protection. This phenomenon may be partially explained by the lower glycemic indices of some whole grain food products […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance: results in Pima Indians and Caucasians

Abstract:
Intracellular magnesium is a cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Magnesium accumulation is dependent upon insulin action and correlates with insulin-mediated glucose uptake. As Pima Indians are known to be insulin resistant, we investigated whether, in response to insulin infusion, they have lower erythrocyte magnesium accumulation than Caucasians. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Higher intake of magnesium appears to improve glucose and insulin homeostasis; however, there are sparse prospective data on the association between magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Women’s Health Study, a cohort of 39,345 U.S. women aged >/=45 years with no previous history of cardiovascular disease, […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Abstract:
Magnesium is an essential mineral and has been established as a cofactor for over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some research has indicated that lower intakes of magnesium and lower serum magnesium concentrations may lead to and are associated with the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. The goal of […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Although hypomagnesemia reduces insulin sensitivity, benefits of magnesium supplementation to non-diabetic insulin resistant subjects has not been established. Our purpose was to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation with magnesium chloride (MgCl2) 2.5 g daily modify insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects.MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a 3 months randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Apparently […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Magnesium deficiency has been associated with insulin resistance (IR) and increased risk for type 2 diabetes in adults. This study was designed to determine whether obese children exhibit serum or dietary magnesium deficiency and its potential association with IR.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 24 obese nondiabetic children (BMI > or =85th percentile) […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium

Abstract:
Magnesium is one of the most abundant ions present in living cells and its plasma concentration is remarkably constant in healthy subjects. Plasma and intracellular magnesium concentrations are tightly regulated by several factors. Among them, insulin seems to be one of the most important. In fact, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis

Abstract:
Evidence suggests that magnesium deficiency may play an important role in cardiovascular disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a magnesium infusion and dietary-induced isolated magnesium deficiency on the production of thromboxane and on angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone synthesis in normal human subjects. Because insulin resistance may be associated with altered blood pressure, […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic syndrome X

Abstract:
Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most abundant ions present in living cells and its plasma concentration is remarkably constant in healthy subjects. Plasma and intracellular Mg concentrations are tightly regulated by several factors. Among them, insulin seems to be one of the most important. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects – a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial

Abstract:
The incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome correlates with the availability of magnesium (Mg). We studied the effect of oral Mg supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in normomagnesemic, overweight, insulin resistant, non-diabetic subjects. Subjects were tested for eligibility using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and subsequently randomized […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance

Abstract:
UNLABELLED: Magnesium, the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation, is a cofactor of many enzymes involved in glucose metabolism. Magnesium has an important role in insulin action, and insulin stimulates magnesium uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues. Impaired biological responses to insulin is referred to as insulin resistance. This review was designed to reach a better […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study

Abstract:
AIMS: Early studies have shown that magnesium intake decreases the risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are still inconsistent. We prospectively examined the association between magnesium intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes in a general Japanese population.METHODS: A total of 1999 subjects without diabetes aged 40-79 years who underwent a 75-g […]

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Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials

Abstract:
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the evidence on the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.METHODS: We searched the electronic databases of medline, embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to January 2005. We identified nine randomized double-blind controlled trials with a […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.DESIGN: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.DATA SOURCES: We retrieved studies published in any language by systematically searching MEDLINE from 1966 to February 2007 and by manually examining the references of the original articles.STUDY SELECTION: We included prospective cohort studies reporting relative […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that higher magnesium intake may reduce diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a PubMed database search through January 2011 to identify prospective cohort studies of […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

A neutrophil intrinsic impairment affecting Rab27a and degranulation in cystic fibrosis is corrected by CFTR potentiator therapy

Abstract:
Studies have endeavored to reconcile whether dysfunction of neutrophils in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a result of the genetic defect or is secondary due to infection and inflammation. In this study, we illustrate that disrupted function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), such as that which occurs in patients with ∆F508 […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Is there a risk for kidney stone formation in cystic fibrosis?

Abstract:
Patients with malabsorption syndromes have an increased risk of kidney stone formation. Those with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from extreme forms of steatorrhea, but they are not reported to be prone to kidney stone formation. Risk parameters for renal stone formation were studied in the urine of 43 patients with cystic fibrosis and compared […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Aminoglycoside-associated hypomagnesaemia in children with cystic fibrosis

Abstract:
Hypomagnesaemia in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is under-recognized. We report a child with CF who developed significant hypomagnesaemia following intravenous (i.v.) treatment with aminoglycosides for exacerbations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Three additional cases have also been observed. Investigations in two patients have revealed excessive renal loss of magnesium. It is postulated that renal […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Hypomagnesaemia in cystic fibrosis patients referred for lung transplant assessment

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Hypomagnesaemia in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is under-recognized although the true incidence is unknown. Many patients are asymptomatic, although severe deficiency may be associated with muscle weakness, cramps and tetany. Hypomagnesaemia may be a risk factor for post-transplant complications including convulsions, which may be exacerbated by the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Role of magnesium in the failure of rhDNase therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: In the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), rhDNase-I inhalation is widely used to facilitate the removal of the highly viscous and elastic mucus (often called sputum) from the lungs. However, an important group of CF patients does not benefit from rhDNase-I treatment. A study was undertaken to elucidate the reason for the failure […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Magnesium deficiency in cystic fibrosis

Abstract:
We have described the first case of symptomatic magnesium deficiency in a patient with cystic fibrosis and have discussed its causes. Such deficiency probably occurs with significant frequency in cystic fibrosis and should be considered in such patients so that important morbidity can be prevented.

Orenstein SR, Orenstein DM
South. Med. J. 1983 Dec;76(12):1586
PMID: 6648626

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Oral magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in the body. Although some studies reported that patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lack magnesium, no international study has assessed the importance of oral magnesium supplementation in CF patients.OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the long-term effect of oral magnesium supplementation on respiratory muscle strength by using […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments

Hypocalcemia secondary to hypomagnesemia in a patient with Crohn’s disease

Abstract:
A 42-year-old female with Crohn’s disease who had previously undergone multiple surgical interventions developed marked hypocalcemia, which could not be resolved with calcium administration. Markedly reduced serum magnesium levels were also observed. After intravenous magnesium administration, serum calcium levels rapidly normalized. In addition, the plasma levels of intact parathyroid hormone increased immediately after magnesium […]

By |October 14th, 2015|Research|0 Comments