Half Of Americans Are Deficient In This Nutrient — Here Are The Signs
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@Dr. Chagai Dubrawsky Actually, inflammation is the mother of all disease. I figured that out the first year of med school.
It is nice to see Magnesium get its due attention once again. Check out a review article on this topic by a fellow at Yale in American Journal of Medicine in Jan 1994— Magnesium and Its Therapeutic Uses: a Review
Well, some food for thought.
@S L Nothing more reassuring than seeing abrupt PVCs in an o/w healthy patient in the middle of an operation that disappear with 1-2 grams of MgSO4. Like magic. All of the time. http://www.consumerlab.com is a good resource with rankings of supplements like magnesium.
As a diabetologist I have been interested in magnesium deficiency in the recovery phase of ketoacidosis. One patient had profound muscle weakness necessitating mechanical ventilation. Confirmation of the diagnosis of hypomagnesaemia and treatment was dramatic with restoration of muscle power almost immediately.
I suffer some of those mentioned symptoms. Will follow DR advice and see what happens. Jen Car Registered Nurse
Great article, we need to get this word out there more than anything. I suggest it to all of my patients everyday, why, because it works and people are clueless about it.
Having said that, I do agree with magnesium as being understudied and undervalued; it’s not exactly news though; I remember this being discussed when I was in med school nearly 20 years ago.
I measure RBC magnesium as a surrogate marker for intracellular magnesium as this does measur an intracellular magnesium
so much we don’t know. Magnesium is certainly important but what about other micronutrients and their interactions. While it probably will not cause harm to start supplements, I prefer improving the diet and address the root of the problem.
Hello? Is there anyone out there who has heard of evidence-based medicine? Anyone?
very interesting information and useful.
thank u for this excellent topic
wonderfully informative article and very well written.. Thank you!
Very informative article . Very few people and medicos are aware of this topic
About 25 years ago, I undertook a study where I found out that hypomagnesimia significantly affected the evoked twitching properties particularly in skeletal muscles. That affected the contractile power in them. However the riddle in the real magnesium level in the body remains as a very large proportion of magnesium is intracellular and it is difficult to measure excepting in specialized laboratories.
Carolyn Dean, MD wrote a very thorough book, The Magnesium Miracle, about the epidemic of magnesium deficiency and exactly how to treat it. It is recommended if there’s a deficiency to stop calcium and supplement with magnesium at 600 mg till symptoms are alleviated and then to continue at 400 mg. Magnesium glycinate will not cause diarrhea, but if constipation is an issue, magnesium citrate or malate can be used. Magnesium taurate is recommended if heart issues like palpitations or arrhythmia are the main symptoms. RBC magnesium is the best way to test. It would be nice if that became part of the yearly labs, similar to the way testing for Vitamin D has become standard. I’d hate to think we have to wait until there’s a high dose magnesium pharmaceutical before such an easy and low cost fix is implemented.
Very succinct and interesting presentation.
Thank you Dr. Lundberg . Refresh and add concepts to my knowlodge. Very easy to read and understand.
Worth trying for non specific symptoms
I predict that fully 40% of patients will respond, at least initially!
@Dr. Chris Foley How do you test for cellular magnesium? As a psychiatric RN and a Certified Health Coach, I have recommended magnesium and seen its benefits for many clients. It is especially helpful in alleviating anxiety. The MD’s at the facility where I work are open, but typically skeptical of “unproven” treatments like this. It would be quite helpful to be able to suggest a test they could use to identify patients with low magnesium levels. Also, as oral supplementation can be quite tricky and unreliable, I find Epsom Salts soaks quite useful. The magnesium is absorbed directly through the skin, and the bath or foot soak itself is calming, thus boosting the anti-anxiety effect of the treatment. Thank you for your very educated comment.
I like it!
@Dr. Robert Powell One of my optometrist friend once told me that his wife was under the care of Psychiatrist for depression and was on two medications. I had read somewhere along the line that some of these patients do well with Mg ++ supplement. She started taking it twice daily. Lo and behold, she felt better and stopped taking her anti depressant medications. This was almost two years ago. To this day, she is feeling fine and going about her work without any sign of depression. Several patients who came to ER in a small western town where I practiced for many years with “heart attack” had cardiac arrhythmia. In some of these cases we found that their Mg level was low. Once they received it IV, not only the arrhythmia stopped , but these patients felt much improved almost immediately.
@Janice Dougherty , Big Pharm won’t because of the lack of profit.
Do we really have to wait for big pharma to solve this, considering the awful state of the average diet?
I knew magesium was vital and the amount excreted is more than I was aware. i will certainly be encouraging adequate diet and may be a supplement. thank you
Lack of ANY essential nutrient leads to lack of health in the body. Welcome to the primary causative factor for why our population is getting sicker, younger…. And eating more whole grains aint the fix (actually quite the contrary). Might want to consider liver though (grandma always had it on her menu) – which contains the broadest array of bio-available nutrients, for Homo sapiens, than any other single substance on the planet, magnesium included. 4-6oz of liver a week might truly “help keep the doctor away”! (Apples are way over rated).
George, You raise an important issue that has unfortunately not received its due. No pharma budget to promote it either. The effect on the heart and other muscles are huge. I lectured on this topic for decades but not sure the audience really absorbed it. ARE
The best form of magnesium is magnesium bisglycinate. As you stated, the various forms of magnesium vary in absorption, bioavailability and concentration. Magnesium bisglycinate is easily absorbed requiring approximately 25% dosage when compared to citrate and others. It also crosses the blood brain barrier and is therefore far more effective. Still, there is nothing like a plate of fresh leafy greens from the garden. Unfortunately we cannot all have that availability so magnesium supplements are a must for most. PS(The magnesium bisglycinate is not hard on the stomach/ GI.)
@Dr. mohamed hakim Basically, you have inorganic minerals like mag oxide, etc. which don’t absorb well and cause diarrhea, and in fact are the basis of one class of laxatives for this very reason. The other type are the fully reacted chelated minerals that are bound to an amino acid. These latter are the best as they are the most absorbable and cause the least amount of digestive problems. Mag glycinate is a particularly good form as the glycine amino acid molecule is relatively light weight, so that form contains a higher percentage of elemental magnesium than other chelated forms and therefore a person can take a much smaller number of pills or capsules when supplementing.
Excellent article. Magnesium both slow IV and IM are rapidly effective in many illnesses.
Great article. I also have noted that an intake of 400 mg daily of magnesium has made a difference in my well being as well as that if my family members. I have done my own research and agree with your article. Magnesium deficiency may be the root cause of many ills and we as doctors may not even consider this as we were not trained to look for it.
So in puerchasing an OTC form of Mag, which one have the most bioavailability?
Dr. Lundberg, thank you for your article on magnesium. I am a multiple sclerosis nurse and often encourage MS pt’s to take 250-500 mg in magnesium to help with muscle spasms, fatigue and weakness. As you know most people are on proton pump inhibitors and patients need to be educated on supplementing magnesium. Those MS pt’s have been doing better since starting the supplements. I take 250 mg everyday because I am a runner and this has helped a great deal with my muscle fatigue. Thank you, Cindi Hoiness RN MSCN
Thank you, your article is a wisdom gift, that all doctors need to keep in mind,
Eating whole natural foods twice or thrice a day– will keep that tribe of surgeons and doctors at bay!
I evaluate and use biofeedback and changes in diet to help incontinent patients in a gynecology practice. On the first visit I show them the Bristol Stool Scale (do an internet search for it) and ask patients to point to the one which matches what they see in the toilet. If they are not in the middle of the scale we discuss increasing their fluid intake to half their weight in ounces of water, and eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables daily. One patient only ate 2 daily, and that was if we counted the catsup on her french fries. If increasing fluid and fiber is not enough to relieve their constipation I suggest they start taking magnesium tablets which are cheap enough even for those on medicaid.
Given the lack of decisiveness in using serum magnesium levels to determine low magnesium stores, might the RBC magnesium level be a more reliable indicator?
@Dr. harinder grewal So true, Dr. Grewal, and yet millions of American women are being pumped full of calcium and, when still turning up with “osteopenia,” are given the likes of Fosamax, with all of its side effects. All because their physicians do not understand basic biochemistry.
@Robert Galey chloride, lactate, citrate, aspartate, probably any organic salt – but certainly not MgO, the most common form found in your neighborhood pharmacy (as little as 4% bioavailability): Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations. Magnes Res. 2001 Dec;14(4):257-62. Firoz M, Graber M. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, NY 11768, USA. Magnesium deficiency is seen with some frequency in the outpatient setting and requires oral repletion or maintenance therapy. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of four commercially-available preparations of magnesium, and to test the claim that organic salts are more easily absorbed. Bioavailability was measured as the increment of urinary maginesium excretion in normal volunteers given approximately 21 mEq/day of the test preparations. Results indicated relatively poor bioavailability of magnesium oxide (fractional absorption 4 per cent) but significantly higher and equivalent bioavailability of magnesium chloride, magnesium lactate and magnesium aspartate. We conclude that there is relatively poor bioavailability of magnesium oxide, but greater and equivalent bioavailability of magnesium chloride, lactate, and aspartate. Inorganic magnesium salts, depending on the preparation, may have bioavailability equivalent to organic magnesium salts. PMID: 11794633
Dear Dr. Lubdberg, Greeting! I am very happy to hear that you feel terrific. Your hypothesis is quite intriguing. How are you going to find out, if your well-being is really due to magnesium? Liisa Russell
Thank you Dr. Lindbergh! Finally! An article clearly written and understandable with excellent content we can all put into practice.
@Dr. juan huaman Juan — one of the foremost magnesium researchers is Dr. Jean Durlach. Past president of The International Soceity for the Development of Research on Magnesium http://www.sdrmsociety.org/home.html
Magnesium RBC levels are far more accurate than serum levels and most healthcare providers are unaware of this test. Shoot for the upper end of that range for good health. For many folks, 400 mg. is way too low for supplementation, depending on GI absorption and other lifestyle factors, especially stress.
I recently read an article about Ayurvedic detoxing: Epsom salt baths figure into it. Who can argue with an ancient Indian medical system? Also advised: brushing teeth with a little magnesium oil squirted on toothbrush.
I’m a NP who use to suffer from leg cramps. I also suffer from migraines and through trial and error I have been able to find my migraine triggers, although there are some I’m still exploring. I started taking daily magnesium about 6-9 mo ago and my leg cramps are few and far between, almost non-existant except for my running days, but that’s nothing compared to what I use to have. What I didn’t know, was that the supplemental magnesium had a positive affect on my migraines. I now get 1-2/month which is a 50% reduction from my monthly average. I’m also trying to get pregnant so this is a bonus as magnesium is safe for pregnancy and the reduction in the frequency… awesome! I have always had a well-rounded diet, but since adding the extra magnesium daily I feel much better. I have more energy, my BMs (sorry if TMI) are more regular, I ache less, and my migraines have reduced in frequency. I would love to see a study looking at the effects of supplemental magnesium on other ailments such as fibromyalgia, DM, HTN, migraines, etc.
good to see a discussion on this, something that intuitively seems like common sense. While the science of how the body uses magnesium is clear, there is no body of knowledge on how much is consumed and excreted, and whether supplementation is necessary. I like the concept of trial by therapy and would venture the statement that ” Good, and I stress good, anecdotal evidence rarely will conflict with more rigorous scientific methods”
@Dr. Justin Baldwin It is also supposed to have beneficial effects in Alzheimers.
@Dr. Herbert Kleinman I disagree doctor. Take a look at the collective date for Vitamin D.
I absolutely agree. As a hospitalist, I routinely assess Magnesium level in my patients, feeling that 75% or more of the patients had low Magnesium levels (same report %), too often to ignore or forget to evaluate it. When practicing in Europe, Magnesium level was used at that time as another marker for poor nutritional condition
@Dr. Chris Foley Kudos!! I noticed the same with the Mayo Clinic, on their page about magnesium. Very disappointing. But I’ve never held that clinic in the esteem it used to enjoy among the public.
More than 25 years ago I became interested in the new frontier of “functional medicine”. Many of my colleagues considered this to be “quackery”. However, as I became more expert at it, did research (a large randomized control trial of the use of arabinogalactans in minimizing community acquired respiratory infections in children), lectured on it (taught nutritional medicine in a large University College of pharmacy graduate level course), and practiced it, I recognized that this was the future medicine. The overly drug dependent, reductionistic, and very downstream 20th Century American College of Physicians (which I ultimately left) was clearly yesterday’s medicine. I have been routinely checking cellular (most definitely not serum) magnesium levels now for more than 25 years. It is one of my most basic entry-level laboratory studies. Supplementing magnesium without causing GI distress is truly a science and heart. Most physicians are utterly clueless about this and most other aspects of nutritional/functional medicine. The Cleveland Clinic finally has invested in a major center of functional medicine. In Minnesota where I practice, the Mayo Clinic is unfortunately still acting like an ostrich. Eventually, this will be the driving force in ambulatory medicine and will keep people from acquiring acute conditions more than any other movement. Medicine is indeed an “upstream” discipline and needs to be personalize so that each individual patient has been her own genomic, age, nutritional, and environmental status assessed carefully before diagnosis and management is designed for them. This is clearly rarely done in the current clinical setting and is particularly absent in the new so-called “accountable care organization”. Direct pay, fee-for-service in small group practices will reemerge is the only way of addressing the functional medicine needs of individual patients and communities. Magnesium is certainly a good start.
@Dr. Michael Hunter for 82 years looks pretty darn good and is sharp as a tack, witty, smart and well meaning
Two years ago I had an L4-S1 fusion. Post-op I developed twitching in my hands and lower legs, and it was moderately severe. My neurosurgeon recommended that I take 250mg of magnesium a day I have and the twitching has stopped. If I miss a day or two I know because the twitching comes back
@Becky Lehr I second LEF. Good intelligence at this level.
Ionic Magnesium is the best way, at 100% absorption, pills are wasting money. Magnesium oil is the second best way at over 90% absorption by rubbing it through the skin.
Are there other factors or elements necessary in the utilization of magnesium/ What does the body need to utilize magnesium?
I am consultant in drug and alcohol and many of my patient especially those who have malnutrition complaining of cramps and tiredness. I agree some these may have Kg def.
Nonsense in the first paragraph. Serum calcium levels cannot be used as a measure of calcium status because they are strongly homeostatically controlled. 99% of calcium is stored in the skeleton c.f. 55% for magnesium. Get yourself a basic text in nutrition Dr Lundberg. Dr Wendy Grylls Nutritionist and Dietitian N.Z.
Thank you for your wonderful articles!
@Dr. Mukund Gnanadesikan As an OB nurse we give Magnesium IV almost daily for pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. We monitor reflexes, urine output and responsiveness. There is always Calcium IVP in the room. I have seen unresponsive people with zero reflexes respond within minutes of this treatment. Lab draws of Mag levels are done every 4 or 6 hours, lab always calls us when they are over 4, but with responsive person we just monitor. At levels of 7 to 8 they begin to show symptoms and we call in the OB doc to give the calcium IVP.
Very interesting. Very little downside with an increase in intake if there is no renal insufficiency. Thank you for the info.
As a Naturopath in Australia I have been prescribing magnesium to my patients for 25 years… Drs are a little slow on the uptake, but glad you are catching on ! great read, thank you
Cher Dr. Lundberg How are you? I hope you are well. You were quite sublime in mentioning Magnesium (Mg) is needed in over 300 enzymes interactions. Sigma Aldrich has a nice poster on Metabolic Pathways which I have used since 2000 to keep me quite aware of how little I truly know. Few physicians know that Taurine is a global sparer of Magnesium in the body, and it, as well as B6, will help with absorption of Mg. Mg like those other nutrients, is very important in the detoxification profile, and I have found many patients with chronic pain issues helped by increasing these nutrients, particularly if they take a great deal of acetaminophen daily(gluthatione depletion). Patients and even physicians assume that just because the patient took 100 mg of Mg oxide they absorbed that amount. We really don’t know. Then genomics play a hidden part,I do believe on observation, there are such polymophisms, that make certain patients “Mg wasters”. You were even more profound in saying we can’t manage what we can’t measure. Can you give me some advice as to how and what we should do to improve on our evidence-based medicine in formulating a study in the dietary intakes of Americans that can then be funded? I have been wanting to do a study, but have not been connected with anyone that interested in making a difference. Will the MODERATOR make sure Dr. Lundberg is aware of my request for assistance? Medscape have my e-mail if you wish to contact me for advice. Please advise. Thank you.
what is the difference between different types of magnesium
I would like to see some additional informaiton for Bariatric Surgical Patients they will always require additional supplementation and what is recommended for those patients? I have felt for > 30 years of my career that the nutrients within our “food” has declined rather rapidly over the years. I feel as though everyone should be taking a good Multi-Vitamin on a daily basis. Many physicians do not realize the need for the additional vitamins and nutrients based on poor and inadequate diets or the how to take supplements. Vitamin D is a perfect example. It needs to be taken with a “fat” to be absorbed, such as peanut butter, olive oil, coconut oil etc. Calcium and Iron should never be given together. High doses of Vitamin C are a “natural muscle relaxer” . As society ages and the “baby boomers” look for natural and other forms of treatment, I feel more and more people will want an alternative source of treatment and healing. Something to think about.
@Becky Lehr One of the more reliable manufacturers of supplements is http://www.lef.org. Check them out and see what you think.
Thanks DR George Lundberg. great talk
I personally use mega mag 400 mg by trace minerals in the ionic form and amazon.com has the best magnesium oil for the price. Ancient minerals has good products too but are very pricey.
Dr. Lundberg: My focus has been on the role of magnesium deficiency in anxiety, negativity, irritability, and insomnia. I have collected a fair amount of patient data and have assembled from PubMed the world medical literature in abstract regarding these issues. I would like to share this information with you and/ or with interested colleagues. Robert Charles Powell, MD, PhD rcpowellpowell at excite.com
Thank U very much Dr George Lundberg for this wonderful information.
A reassuring article. I hate it but I’ve been a chronic pain patient for many years but I came upon my own trial & error for treating the constipation effects from the opioids. Because I also have whole body pain, I’ve been taking Magnesium for the muscle pain. After doing some research, I chose Magnesium Citrate as my first choice & while it helps a bit with the muscle pain, it helps more with the GI situation. Over time, I have settled on taking Magnesium Citrate ( no other form works as well) 150mg caps 4 caps with breakfast. I’ve never required laxatives or anything related. I can increase or decrease as needed..ie if I’ve had a wonderful day & required fewer breakthrough meds, then 4 caps will do just fine. If I’ve had a totally miserable day & have been forced to take an extra breakthrough med, then an extra cap of Mag Citrate 150 mg will keep me in fine shape. I’ve managed this way for 15+ years without any negative effects but I do have concerns about the potential for cardiac arrhythmia. Any comments on this with regards to the arrhythmia aspect?
Thank you Dr. Lundberg! Great useful comment I will remember it and try to get more Magnesium!
Magnesium is a very good adyuvant therapy for neuropathic pain, and in general it doesnt have any adverse effects Very good article!!! than you very much Dr. Ariel Cherro
I BELIEVE THE DIRECTION OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATIONS IN MEDICINES IS TOWARDS FINDING BUGS AND DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENTS BUT THE BASIC OF FINDING DEFICIENCIES OF VITAL MINERALS AND NEED TO SUPPLEMENT IS AN IGNORED ASPECT OF MODERN RESEARCH,, OF COURSE MAGNESIUM IS MORE THAN VITAL WHAT IS MENTIONED IN THE ARTICLES AND TRIAL THERAPY IN JUSTIFIED DOSAGE IS NOT THAT HARMFUL.. IT WILL REALLY WORK.
I am a diabetic and I was doing well on oral meds until a few years ago. I also have a hx of total just for a dx of poly cystic ovarian syndrome as well as a thyroidectomy for multinodular thyroid which presented with very rapid sx. I have been taking meds since that time. In the last 2 years I started having trouble regulating my glucose which was rising rapidly, I became severely anemic and was dx with iron absorption deficiency which has required IV iron on a yearly basis, fibromyalgia , RLS, migraines and very low Vitamin D level. I had to start insulin and even with that I had serious hyperglycemia which was not really responding to medication. In April , 2014, I was having terrible sx with cardiac arrhythmia and my HR would fluctuate from 50’s-120, while sitting still as well as palpitations. It is not possible to sleep with this going on. I was sent for to a cardiologist for testing and there was no dx made other than possible hyperthyroid from the medication that I was taking. I also developed tetany of my right thumb as well as a feeling that I am at a loss to even begin to explain but it felt like my arms and shoulders would pull inward and it was difficult to take a breath. I would have feelings of hypoglycemia even though my glucometer was reading
Hi Dr Plunkett, Try this one….where is “Truth”? http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/844488 George
As I prepare to speak to my neurologist about magnesium for migraine, I’m very much aware that “supplements” in general lack regulatory oversight, so it can be difficult to know exactly how much is in that OTC mag. Lots of food for thought here. Thank you.
Magnesium and Omega-3 supplementation is now my first-line therapy for “benign” arrhthymias particularly ectopy. It certainly appears to help in PAF.
My wife (age 91 and I (age 95) have been taking Magnesium for two years now. We have not seen any change in our health or well being or “feeling Terrific.”
What is the recommended form of magnesium (citrate, oxide, etc.)?
@Dr. Higinio Fuentes Hello, Here is my position on Vitamin K2. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/834763 I have not yet written about Iron supplements.
Integrative medicine practitioners measure intracellular magnesium levels which seems to be somewhat better at giving an idea of deficiency. Still need better studies of magnesium balance, it really is a master mineral involved in many essential metabolic functions.
People read this—-
@S H Several holistic pregnancy websites discuss and advise women to take supplements. My niece took supplements daily during her twin pregnancy, never had BP problem, no preterm labor, delivered on her due date.
Thank You Doc, good review.
I applaud your enthusiasm and wholeheartedly agree with you! I believe extra magnesium may decrease migraine headaches, constipation, muscle cramps including dysmenorrhea!
Thank you, Dr. Lundberg. Over 16 years of being a proselytizer for paying attention to magnesium, I’ve run into more ignorance in the “medical community”…it staggers the mind. Especially the arrogance over-laying the ignorance. The idea of measuring cholesterol to the nth degree and not even looking at basic nutrients. It’s insane.
does rbc magnesium reflect intracellular stores. Is it worth testing?
Actually, it is fairly hard to become magnesium toxic. The classic known methods are for one to fall asleep in a bathtub full of magnesium solution or for one to have an intestinal obstruction such that the magnesium tablets are piling up inside. Generally I advise patients to begin with one tablet (of any kind of magnesium) per day for one week, then move to twice a day for one week, then to 3 times per day, etc — with the limiting factor being loose bowels. Usually the “correct” dose is the one that is just shy of producing loose bowels — which dose generally correlating with a serum magnesium level of about 2.2-2.4 (assuming that both serum albumin and serum sodium are mid-range — as each of these can pull up or pull down the serum magnesium level).
This is a very interesting and valuable information
Sounds a lot like the scurge of Vitamin D deficiency that was being promoted as the cause of all the same things that was listed for magnesium deficiency. Sure enough, once the controlled clinical trial results came in, Vitamin D supplementation did very little other than the expected bone and calcium changes. So, George, how about waiting for some controlled trial data before promoting a new fad?
There is always a place for an honest sharing of experiences without waiting for Big Pharma to tell us what is good for us with false evidence and statistical magic
In the present health care-medicine, we have too many rules. Magnesium is the Emperor. Zinc is the Monarch.HDL is the Guardian Angle(contuse&Chapman 2006). Niacin rules the Hypertension, and Hypertension is the MOTHER of all diseases known to mankind. Honestly, I am sick and tired of all those monarchs, who in final analysis turned to be naked emperor. Let us stick just to the principle. And the winner is? RECEPTORS. Stick to receptors and Thou Shall Have The Truth
- Effects of magnesium and its mechanism on the incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias following severe ischemia in isolated rat hearts - Abstract: Magnesium sulfate (Mg) has been widely used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VF) in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanisms of prevention on the incidence of VF have not been defined. The aim of study was to investigate the role of Mg in the prevention of VF and the mechanism of […]
- Magnesium supplementation in the prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects - Abstract: BACKGROUND: The efficacy of magnesium in the prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients after heart surgery remains unknown. Therefore we prospectively examined the effect of magnesium treatment on the incidence of postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart defects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary […]
- Magnesium treatment of ventricular arrhythmias - Abstract: The association between marked hypomagnesemia and arrhythmias, particularly those associated with digitalis intoxication, has long been recognized. More recently, acute intervention with magnesium in patients who are not hypomagnesemic has demonstrated arrhythmia suppression in 3 settings: digitalis intoxication, long QT-related arrhythmias and arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction. Although the electrophysiologic effects of magnesium are […]
- [Magnesium and arrhythmia] - Abstract: Experimental and clinical studies have shown the antiarrhythmic activity of magnesium salts and the arrhythmogenic effect of hypomagnesemia. Both are observed mainly but not exclusively during treatment with digitalis. The Mg++ plays an essential role in transmembrane K+ exchange in that a deficit of magnesium leads to a loss of intracellular K+ which cannot […]
- Effect of acute magnesium administration on the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure - Summary: Giving magnesium to patients with heart failure reduces the frequency of their arrhythmias. Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in patients with heart failure. Unfortunately, currently available antiarrhythmic agents have only limited efficacy and may result in proarrhythmia and hemodynamic deterioration in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: […]
- Magnesium therapy of cardiac arrhythmias in critical-care medicine - Abstract: A common complication of critically ill patients is cardiac tachyarrhythmia. The role played by magnesium is not well appreciated. Well-documented cases indicated that magnesium may be effective in controlling the rhythm when conventional methods fail. The following tachyarrhythmias respond favorably to magnesium: (1) intractable ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, whether hypo- or normomagnesemic, (2) torsades […]
- [Significance of magnesium in cardiac arrhythmias] - Abstract: Magnesium is of great importance in cardiac arrhythmias. It increases the ventricular threshold for fibrillation. Sinus node refractoriness and conduction in the AV node are both prolonged. Main indications for intravenous application of magnesium are Torsade de pointes tachycardias, digitalis toxicity induced tachyarrhythmias and multifocal atrial tachycardias. Additionally, patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to […]
- Intravenous magnesium for cardiac arrhythmias: jack of all trades - Abstract: Intravenous magnesium has been used to prevent and treat many different types of cardiac arrhythmia. It has diverse electrophysiological actions on the conduction system of the heart; including prolonging sinus node recovery time, and reducing automaticity, atrioventricular nodal conduction, antegrade and retrograde conduction over an accessory pathway, and His-ventricular conduction. Intravenous magnesium can also […]
- Low extracellular magnesium induces epileptiform activity and spreading depression in rat hippocampal slices - Abstract: The effect of low extracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]o) on neuronal activity was studied in rat hippocampal slices. After 20-40 min of perfusion with Mg2+-free medium, when [Mg2+]o declined to approximately 0.1-0.4 mM, spontaneous field potentials developed in the CA1 and CA3 regions, but not in the dentate gyrus. In the CA3 pyramidal cell layer, […]
- Effect of magnesium chloride and magnesium L-aspartate on seizure threshold in rats under conditions of dietary magnesium deficiency - Abstract: We studied the effect of Mg-L-aspartate, MgCL2, and their combinations with vitamin B6, magneB6, and MgSO4 on seizure threshold in rats with dietary Mg2+ deficiency. Mg2+ deficiency was followed by a decrease in the threshold dose of corazol (from 79.20 to 49.48 mg/kg), shortening of the latency of the first jerk (by 33.6%, p=0.012), […]