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Cher Dr. Lundberg How are you? I hope you are well. You were quite sublime in mentioning Magnesium (Mg) is needed in over 300 enzymes interactions. Sigma Aldrich has a nice poster on Metabolic Pathways which I have used since 2000 to keep me quite aware of how little I truly know. Few physicians know that Taurine is a global sparer of Magnesium in the body, and it, as well as B6, will help with absorption of Mg. Mg like those other nutrients, is very important in the detoxification profile, and I have found many patients with chronic pain issues helped by increasing these nutrients, particularly if they take a great deal of acetaminophen daily(gluthatione depletion). Patients and even physicians assume that just because the patient took 100 mg of Mg oxide they absorbed that amount. We really don’t know. Then genomics play a hidden part,I do believe on observation, there are such polymophisms, that make certain patients “Mg wasters”. You were even more profound in saying we can’t manage what we can’t measure. Can you give me some advice as to how and what we should do to improve on our evidence-based medicine in formulating a study in the dietary intakes of Americans that can then be funded? I have been wanting to do a study, but have not been connected with anyone that interested in making a difference. Will the MODERATOR make sure Dr. Lundberg is aware of my request for assistance? Medscape have my e-mail if you wish to contact me for advice. Please advise. Thank you.
I must add to the comment below that Dr. Rude was using very sophisticated laboratory equipment to do this testing on the celiacs and not the usual lab equipment in a hospital. Also, if I recall correctly, Magnesium Oxide was used..
Dr. Lundberg, thank you for your article on magnesium. I am a multiple sclerosis nurse and often encourage MS pt’s to take 250-500 mg in magnesium to help with muscle spasms, fatigue and weakness. As you know most people are on proton pump inhibitors and patients need to be educated on supplementing magnesium. Those MS pt’s have been doing better since starting the supplements. I take 250 mg everyday because I am a runner and this has helped a great deal with my muscle fatigue. Thank you, Cindi Hoiness RN MSCN
Very succinct and interesting presentation.
@Dr. Michael Hunter for 82 years looks pretty darn good and is sharp as a tack, witty, smart and well meaning
People read this—-
I BELIEVE THE DIRECTION OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATIONS IN MEDICINES IS TOWARDS FINDING BUGS AND DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENTS BUT THE BASIC OF FINDING DEFICIENCIES OF VITAL MINERALS AND NEED TO SUPPLEMENT IS AN IGNORED ASPECT OF MODERN RESEARCH,, OF COURSE MAGNESIUM IS MORE THAN VITAL WHAT IS MENTIONED IN THE ARTICLES AND TRIAL THERAPY IN JUSTIFIED DOSAGE IS NOT THAT HARMFUL.. IT WILL REALLY WORK.
Carolyn Dean, MD wrote a very thorough book, The Magnesium Miracle, about the epidemic of magnesium deficiency and exactly how to treat it. It is recommended if there’s a deficiency to stop calcium and supplement with magnesium at 600 mg till symptoms are alleviated and then to continue at 400 mg. Magnesium glycinate will not cause diarrhea, but if constipation is an issue, magnesium citrate or malate can be used. Magnesium taurate is recommended if heart issues like palpitations or arrhythmia are the main symptoms. RBC magnesium is the best way to test. It would be nice if that became part of the yearly labs, similar to the way testing for Vitamin D has become standard. I’d hate to think we have to wait until there’s a high dose magnesium pharmaceutical before such an easy and low cost fix is implemented.
@Anne Mathews How about taking 400 mg daily instead to build up levels in your muscles instead of just serum levels as the doc described?
I evaluate and use biofeedback and changes in diet to help incontinent patients in a gynecology practice. On the first visit I show them the Bristol Stool Scale (do an internet search for it) and ask patients to point to the one which matches what they see in the toilet. If they are not in the middle of the scale we discuss increasing their fluid intake to half their weight in ounces of water, and eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables daily. One patient only ate 2 daily, and that was if we counted the catsup on her french fries. If increasing fluid and fiber is not enough to relieve their constipation I suggest they start taking magnesium tablets which are cheap enough even for those on medicaid.
Dear Dr. Lubdberg, Greeting! I am very happy to hear that you feel terrific. Your hypothesis is quite intriguing. How are you going to find out, if your well-being is really due to magnesium? Liisa Russell
Thank you Dr. Lundberg . Refresh and add concepts to my knowlodge. Very easy to read and understand.
I suggest eat well and you don’t need supplements.
Dear George, I was delighted to read your comments on magnesium. It is a forgotten electrolyte. I have some interesting insights on magnesium to share with you. Please send me your e-mail address and phone number. I am still at “firstname.lastname@example.org”. Ray Gambino
Dr. Lundberg: My focus has been on the role of magnesium deficiency in anxiety, negativity, irritability, and insomnia. I have collected a fair amount of patient data and have assembled from PubMed the world medical literature in abstract regarding these issues. I would like to share this information with you and/ or with interested colleagues. Robert Charles Powell, MD, PhD rcpowellpowell at excite.com
People talk of toxicity when there is deficiency (ignorance) Now a days practice of medicine has become complicated because how far the patient is following your advice or make cocktail of advices from others(Apart from you) like friends,relatives and Google?.
The best form of magnesium is magnesium bisglycinate. As you stated, the various forms of magnesium vary in absorption, bioavailability and concentration. Magnesium bisglycinate is easily absorbed requiring approximately 25% dosage when compared to citrate and others. It also crosses the blood brain barrier and is therefore far more effective. Still, there is nothing like a plate of fresh leafy greens from the garden. Unfortunately we cannot all have that availability so magnesium supplements are a must for most. PS(The magnesium bisglycinate is not hard on the stomach/ GI.)
George looks as if he is a mouth breather and has OSA, does not look “terrific”
Many mag supplements can be taken without GI issues. Perhaps you are thinking of Milk of Magnesia? That’s entirely different from the mag supplements. Some people do best with mag citrate, but there is also malate, aspartate, etc. Liquid magnesium chloride is thought by some to be the best absorbed. The main thing is to “start low, titrate slow.”
On occasion i will have oatmeal with molasses and have noticed an increased energy and alertness associated with this diet that i formerly believed to be the increased iron. I will try to include even more of these magnesium rich foods in the next few weeks to test this theory.
True, true, true, oh so true. Pregnant women get magnesium IV when they present with high blood pressure or preterm labor. More pregnancy websites advocate supplements when pregnant. Taking herbal classes, the teacher also says many ailments in the body can be prevented by supplements. There needs to be more emphasis on this topic.
Two years ago I had an L4-S1 fusion. Post-op I developed twitching in my hands and lower legs, and it was moderately severe. My neurosurgeon recommended that I take 250mg of magnesium a day I have and the twitching has stopped. If I miss a day or two I know because the twitching comes back
My Grandmother, not a doctor, not a nurse took Mag supplements daily in rather large amounts. Milk o Mag everyday, she felt it wasn’t addictive but medicinal. She lived to be 97 years old, she had aortic stenosis, no surgery, no atrial fibrillation. Rarely what I guess was a PVC. I am a nurse, she lived with me the last 14 years of her life and I checked her “regular” pulse. Always amazed me. I have thought about how her magnesium supplements were really her intuitive ideas about maintaining her own homeostasis. At 97 , can anyone argue that she was not on to something as you are also saying ? But with no kidney disease she she have been able to supplement and not have some extreme build up. I have realized mag supplement also makes me and my GI system better.
In a 1990’s study of celiacs with low bone densityy Robert Rude, MD, an endocrinologist at the University of Southern California School of Medicine, found Mg+ serum levels were within a normal range, but intracellular levels wrere low. Supplementation with Magnesium, in addition to Vit D and Calcium, was successful in increasing bone density in a year as compared to controls without magnesium supplementation. An uninteded benefit, was to also treat the constipation often associated with celiac disease, but it made finding study controls when the word regarding the latter benefit was shared by subjects, P. S. It must have been published prior to Pub Med in the 90’s….I have read it, but could not locate it now online.
There is always a place for an honest sharing of experiences without waiting for Big Pharma to tell us what is good for us with false evidence and statistical magic
As a Naturopath in Australia I have been prescribing magnesium to my patients for 25 years… Drs are a little slow on the uptake, but glad you are catching on ! great read, thank you
George, You raise an important issue that has unfortunately not received its due. No pharma budget to promote it either. The effect on the heart and other muscles are huge. I lectured on this topic for decades but not sure the audience really absorbed it. ARE
Hi, thanks for your talk. It seems to me more or less like vitamin D deficiency, causing a wide variety of symptoms like a rainbow!..
@Dr. mohamed hakim Dr. Hakim, usually the difference is in the way the Mg is absorbed. Mg oxide less absorbed than the malates, citrates, and orotates.
@Dr. john tanner If you read the comments, I think n>1. I’ll add one more: friend who has suffered fibromyalgia for many years has just started taking Mg supplements, symptoms much reduced and she can now sleep through the night.
Hi Dr Plunkett, Try this one….where is “Truth”? http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/844488 George
George, any thought on measuring RBC magnesium level as we do RBC folate???
I personally use mega mag 400 mg by trace minerals in the ionic form and amazon.com has the best magnesium oil for the price. Ancient minerals has good products too but are very pricey.
I would like to see some additional informaiton for Bariatric Surgical Patients they will always require additional supplementation and what is recommended for those patients? I have felt for > 30 years of my career that the nutrients within our “food” has declined rather rapidly over the years. I feel as though everyone should be taking a good Multi-Vitamin on a daily basis. Many physicians do not realize the need for the additional vitamins and nutrients based on poor and inadequate diets or the how to take supplements. Vitamin D is a perfect example. It needs to be taken with a “fat” to be absorbed, such as peanut butter, olive oil, coconut oil etc. Calcium and Iron should never be given together. High doses of Vitamin C are a “natural muscle relaxer” . As society ages and the “baby boomers” look for natural and other forms of treatment, I feel more and more people will want an alternative source of treatment and healing. Something to think about.
very interesting information and useful.
yes doctor understanding Calcium metabolism with out Role of Magnesium is eating bread without butter/jam. Any way understanding Physiology+Bio Chemistry is essential to be a full fledged genius(Doctor)
so much we don’t know. Magnesium is certainly important but what about other micronutrients and their interactions. While it probably will not cause harm to start supplements, I prefer improving the diet and address the root of the problem.
Ever since I added a 500mg magnesium daily supplement, my migraines have decreased in intensity and frequency. I have two friends who also have added a magnesium supplement and they also have fewer and less intense migraines. But for one friend it did not help. Is it time for a study?
As I prepare to speak to my neurologist about magnesium for migraine, I’m very much aware that “supplements” in general lack regulatory oversight, so it can be difficult to know exactly how much is in that OTC mag. Lots of food for thought here. Thank you.
I recently read an article about Ayurvedic detoxing: Epsom salt baths figure into it. Who can argue with an ancient Indian medical system? Also advised: brushing teeth with a little magnesium oil squirted on toothbrush.
@Dr. juan huaman Juan — one of the foremost magnesium researchers is Dr. Jean Durlach. Past president of The International Soceity for the Development of Research on Magnesium http://www.sdrmsociety.org/home.html
Thank you Dr. Lundberg! Great useful comment I will remember it and try to get more Magnesium!
So in puerchasing an OTC form of Mag, which one have the most bioavailability?
Thank you Dr. Lindbergh! Finally! An article clearly written and understandable with excellent content we can all put into practice.
Magnesium RBC levels are far more accurate than serum levels and most healthcare providers are unaware of this test. Shoot for the upper end of that range for good health. For many folks, 400 mg. is way too low for supplementation, depending on GI absorption and other lifestyle factors, especially stress.
Great article. I also have noted that an intake of 400 mg daily of magnesium has made a difference in my well being as well as that if my family members. I have done my own research and agree with your article. Magnesium deficiency may be the root cause of many ills and we as doctors may not even consider this as we were not trained to look for it.
@Dr. Mukund Gnanadesikan As an OB nurse we give Magnesium IV almost daily for pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. We monitor reflexes, urine output and responsiveness. There is always Calcium IVP in the room. I have seen unresponsive people with zero reflexes respond within minutes of this treatment. Lab draws of Mag levels are done every 4 or 6 hours, lab always calls us when they are over 4, but with responsive person we just monitor. At levels of 7 to 8 they begin to show symptoms and we call in the OB doc to give the calcium IVP.
Thank U very much Dr George Lundberg for this wonderful information.
@Dr. Higinio Fuentes Hello, Here is my position on Vitamin K2. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/834763 I have not yet written about Iron supplements.
Very good information about magnesium.
I tried everything for my hot flashes, except hormone replacement therapy, and nothing worked. I read something about magnesium and thought, at that point, anything was worth a try. As long as I take magnesium, no hot flashes. If I stop, a week or two later, hot flashes start. Anecdotal evidence, I know, but as long as it works, I’m using it.
I am consultant in drug and alcohol and many of my patient especially those who have malnutrition complaining of cramps and tiredness. I agree some these may have Kg def.
My wife (age 91 and I (age 95) have been taking Magnesium for two years now. We have not seen any change in our health or well being or “feeling Terrific.”
Very interesting. Very little downside with an increase in intake if there is no renal insufficiency. Thank you for the info.
Dr, Lunberg, I totally praise the benefit of magnesium to cellular health. I’ve heard that magnesium maleate is the most absorbable. Which formulation do you take?
Thank you, Dr. Lundberg. Over 16 years of being a proselytizer for paying attention to magnesium, I’ve run into more ignorance in the “medical community”…it staggers the mind. Especially the arrogance over-laying the ignorance. The idea of measuring cholesterol to the nth degree and not even looking at basic nutrients. It’s insane.
I suffer some of those mentioned symptoms. Will follow DR advice and see what happens. Jen Car Registered Nurse
I knew magesium was vital and the amount excreted is more than I was aware. i will certainly be encouraging adequate diet and may be a supplement. thank you
Ver good opinión, I agree without you. Congratulations From México.
Actually, it is fairly hard to become magnesium toxic. The classic known methods are for one to fall asleep in a bathtub full of magnesium solution or for one to have an intestinal obstruction such that the magnesium tablets are piling up inside. Generally I advise patients to begin with one tablet (of any kind of magnesium) per day for one week, then move to twice a day for one week, then to 3 times per day, etc — with the limiting factor being loose bowels. Usually the “correct” dose is the one that is just shy of producing loose bowels — which dose generally correlating with a serum magnesium level of about 2.2-2.4 (assuming that both serum albumin and serum sodium are mid-range — as each of these can pull up or pull down the serum magnesium level).
I agree, in those individuals at risk (poor diet, daily alcohol consumption, PPI use, symptomatic complaints etc.), low Magnesium should be measured (for low serum values) and supplemented if needed; however, patients should be advised of the potential risks of excess Magnesium levels (esp. those individuals taking Mag supplements chronically and unaware of its content (Maalox Mylanta MOM etc.); additionally, those with renal insufficiency, chronic renal failure and or on dialysis, need to be educated these conditions can greatly increase the risk of toxic Mg++ levels. Finally, I do recall as an intern, (1988- many years ago) knowing of a patient admitted for bradycardia, secondary to AV node dysfunction with a high toxic Mg level; by simply holding Mg supplements that she was taking chronically, her levels dropped and bradycardia resolved
@Dr. Robert Powell One of my optometrist friend once told me that his wife was under the care of Psychiatrist for depression and was on two medications. I had read somewhere along the line that some of these patients do well with Mg ++ supplement. She started taking it twice daily. Lo and behold, she felt better and stopped taking her anti depressant medications. This was almost two years ago. To this day, she is feeling fine and going about her work without any sign of depression. Several patients who came to ER in a small western town where I practiced for many years with “heart attack” had cardiac arrhythmia. In some of these cases we found that their Mg level was low. Once they received it IV, not only the arrhythmia stopped , but these patients felt much improved almost immediately.
@Judy Taylor Many, starting with sufficient HCl to chelate (for common forms). Ca and Mg compete so balance needs to be addressed. BTW: the typical US diet all but guarantees a Mg. deficiency.
Worth trying for non specific symptoms
@Dr. Robert Powell I’ve just sent an e-mail to you.
good to see a discussion on this, something that intuitively seems like common sense. While the science of how the body uses magnesium is clear, there is no body of knowledge on how much is consumed and excreted, and whether supplementation is necessary. I like the concept of trial by therapy and would venture the statement that ” Good, and I stress good, anecdotal evidence rarely will conflict with more rigorous scientific methods”
@Dr. Chris Foley Are you taking new patients? Just kidding, you are my kind of doc!
When I forget to take my magnesium, I start having “restless leg syndrome” type of leg jerks at night. I also start having “skipped” beats in my heart. I start to take the magnesium and behold, gone. I am sold on this Magnesium parade.
As a diabetologist I have been interested in magnesium deficiency in the recovery phase of ketoacidosis. One patient had profound muscle weakness necessitating mechanical ventilation. Confirmation of the diagnosis of hypomagnesaemia and treatment was dramatic with restoration of muscle power almost immediately.
Magnesium is easily absorbed through the skin and studies show a significant increase in blood levels after a bath with Epsom salts. Also note that oral forms do vary widely in absorption and bioavailabiity. Magnesium glycinate and malate are two that are much more readily absorbed and less likey to cause gastrointestinal side-effects. I would agree that 400mg a day is about what we need to supplement our poor American diet.
thank u for this excellent topic
Nrf2 receptors are the master regulator that can be turned on by phytonutrients supplementation like no other!!!! Protandim can be researched on pubmed.gov!!
@Richard Sherwill Evidence-Based Medicine is acceptable for many, yet there is often a point to look beyond evidence-based medicine and see what may help. As another posted, good anecdotal evidence can be as effective as large studies. Be wary where the “evidence” presented to you comes from.
Well, some food for thought.
About time that Magnesium got the recognition it deserves. I totally agree with your commentary and have recommended Manesium supplementation for last 20 years to my patients. Not only Is it a calming mineral, it is the best thing the OB orders for a pre eclampsia patient to reduce the Blood pressure and decrease the risk of seizures. For diabetic patients it deserves a special place in their diet supplement as it helps regulate glucose metabolism. Somewhere I read that if you wanted to DUMB a nation, it was to feed the natives, excessive calcium and lower their magnesium levels. Medical students, pay attention and grab those magnesium rich nuts, especially cashews ad then gulp down some extra supplement to keep that brain sharp and help insulin metabolize the glycogen stores to provide the brain with ready source of much needed energy, the glucose. Seriously, magnesium is extremely important supplement that helps prevent osteoporosis, (equally important, if not more important than calcium), and keep the BP under control. Disclosure: No, I do not get paid by magnesium manufacturers. And thank you Dr. Lundberg !!
More than 25 years ago I became interested in the new frontier of “functional medicine”. Many of my colleagues considered this to be “quackery”. However, as I became more expert at it, did research (a large randomized control trial of the use of arabinogalactans in minimizing community acquired respiratory infections in children), lectured on it (taught nutritional medicine in a large University College of pharmacy graduate level course), and practiced it, I recognized that this was the future medicine. The overly drug dependent, reductionistic, and very downstream 20th Century American College of Physicians (which I ultimately left) was clearly yesterday’s medicine. I have been routinely checking cellular (most definitely not serum) magnesium levels now for more than 25 years. It is one of my most basic entry-level laboratory studies. Supplementing magnesium without causing GI distress is truly a science and heart. Most physicians are utterly clueless about this and most other aspects of nutritional/functional medicine. The Cleveland Clinic finally has invested in a major center of functional medicine. In Minnesota where I practice, the Mayo Clinic is unfortunately still acting like an ostrich. Eventually, this will be the driving force in ambulatory medicine and will keep people from acquiring acute conditions more than any other movement. Medicine is indeed an “upstream” discipline and needs to be personalize so that each individual patient has been her own genomic, age, nutritional, and environmental status assessed carefully before diagnosis and management is designed for them. This is clearly rarely done in the current clinical setting and is particularly absent in the new so-called “accountable care organization”. Direct pay, fee-for-service in small group practices will reemerge is the only way of addressing the functional medicine needs of individual patients and communities. Magnesium is certainly a good start.
@Dr. Robert Powell Hard, yes, but not impossible. And remember that the supplement quality control is pretty horrible, so you’re potentially not just dealing with toxicity from magnesium but also toxicity from manufacturing impurities. The problem with supplementation is that so many patients thing if a little is good, a lot is better. Another factor is that many individuals who supplement do so with a staggering amount of different supplements, which in combination could produce effects not anticipated. The other issue is the idea that there is an accepted idea among many advocates that serum magnesium is irrelevant, but getting an intracellular magnesium level paid for is not likely for any patient on insurance.
@Janice Dougherty , Big Pharm won’t because of the lack of profit.
If one looks at the doses given in preeclampsia and eclampsia 4-6 GM to load and then 1 Gm per hour IV then amount in supplements pales. Unless the patient has kidney failure no problem. If diarrhea decrease the dose. It is excellent for leg cramps, decreases cardiac arrhythmias and may be helpful in asthma. Patients on long term PPI’s waste huge amounts of Mg in their urine. It may not be reversible. Another reason to try to get pt’s off PPI’s which is very difficult. But they need to have Mg supplements at the least.
I applaud your enthusiasm and wholeheartedly agree with you! I believe extra magnesium may decrease migraine headaches, constipation, muscle cramps including dysmenorrhea!
Since I learned about Mg heart rhythm benefits, I’ve been taking 400 mg QD for almost 20 yrs. And don’t remember where I read that people living in hard water areas live longer. I’d like to know what Dr. Lundberg thinks about the Iron and Vit K in Multivitamins-Minerals. Great article. Thanks.
it is 100% true. if you want to avoid many health complications , it is best idea to take magnesium supplements . real benifit you will notice after the age of 50 yrs. i have been administering bio-mineral Magnesium Phosphate to all my patients for all sorts of pain, found fantastic results. very good improvements even in complicated cases also. good article, thank q Dr.
Great personality coming through article!
@Becky Lehr I second LEF. Good intelligence at this level.
does rbc magnesium reflect intracellular stores. Is it worth testing?
Are there other factors or elements necessary in the utilization of magnesium/ What does the body need to utilize magnesium?
Yes , as we talk about modern research and drugs so much , we ignore the basic vitamins and minerals that are essential co enzymes in so many metabolic reactions . Please let us go back and revisit our basics and see how we can help ourselves and patients overcome several Symptoms and side effects of other frequently used drugs that interfere with absorption .
@Dr. harinder grewal So true, Dr. Grewal, and yet millions of American women are being pumped full of calcium and, when still turning up with “osteopenia,” are given the likes of Fosamax, with all of its side effects. All because their physicians do not understand basic biochemistry.
Let’s not forget that there is such a thing as magnesium toxicity, and that when we can’t really measure how much is enough, we have no idea how much is too much.
@Dr. Chris Foley How do you test for cellular magnesium? As a psychiatric RN and a Certified Health Coach, I have recommended magnesium and seen its benefits for many clients. It is especially helpful in alleviating anxiety. The MD’s at the facility where I work are open, but typically skeptical of “unproven” treatments like this. It would be quite helpful to be able to suggest a test they could use to identify patients with low magnesium levels. Also, as oral supplementation can be quite tricky and unreliable, I find Epsom Salts soaks quite useful. The magnesium is absorbed directly through the skin, and the bath or foot soak itself is calming, thus boosting the anti-anxiety effect of the treatment. Thank you for your very educated comment.
@Dr. Chagai Dubrawsky Actually, inflammation is the mother of all disease. I figured that out the first year of med school.
Do we really have to wait for big pharma to solve this, considering the awful state of the average diet?
@Becky Lehr http://www.consumerlab.com is a good resource with verifying supplements.
@Dr. Michael Hunter I looked up him up online. Dr. Lundberg is 82 years old. Did your comment on his physical appearance have a point?
This is welcome – but would be so much more welcome if there were some research. my life pattern was – eating food; adjusting food and taking supplements following each new half-proven theory; going back to depending on what I ate; adding two supplements – D3 and iron because of low level and anemia, B12 because it eliminated a longstanding canker sore problem — and only in the last 6 months, 250 mg magnesium in order to see if it reduced or eliminated severe leg cramps ( it worked, tho’ I have no clue how much is absorbed, if it is masking something else, or what else is going on). I don’t think I could eat enough of anything to increase levels through diet. You’d think we would know more!
- Effects of magnesium and its mechanism on the incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias following severe ischemia in isolated rat hearts - Abstract: Magnesium sulfate (Mg) has been widely used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VF) in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanisms of prevention on the incidence of VF have not been defined. The aim of study was to investigate the role of Mg in the prevention of VF and the mechanism of […]
- Magnesium supplementation in the prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects - Abstract: BACKGROUND: The efficacy of magnesium in the prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients after heart surgery remains unknown. Therefore we prospectively examined the effect of magnesium treatment on the incidence of postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart defects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary […]
- Magnesium treatment of ventricular arrhythmias - Abstract: The association between marked hypomagnesemia and arrhythmias, particularly those associated with digitalis intoxication, has long been recognized. More recently, acute intervention with magnesium in patients who are not hypomagnesemic has demonstrated arrhythmia suppression in 3 settings: digitalis intoxication, long QT-related arrhythmias and arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction. Although the electrophysiologic effects of magnesium are […]
- [Magnesium and arrhythmia] - Abstract: Experimental and clinical studies have shown the antiarrhythmic activity of magnesium salts and the arrhythmogenic effect of hypomagnesemia. Both are observed mainly but not exclusively during treatment with digitalis. The Mg++ plays an essential role in transmembrane K+ exchange in that a deficit of magnesium leads to a loss of intracellular K+ which cannot […]
- Effect of acute magnesium administration on the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure - Summary: Giving magnesium to patients with heart failure reduces the frequency of their arrhythmias. Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in patients with heart failure. Unfortunately, currently available antiarrhythmic agents have only limited efficacy and may result in proarrhythmia and hemodynamic deterioration in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: […]
- Magnesium therapy of cardiac arrhythmias in critical-care medicine - Abstract: A common complication of critically ill patients is cardiac tachyarrhythmia. The role played by magnesium is not well appreciated. Well-documented cases indicated that magnesium may be effective in controlling the rhythm when conventional methods fail. The following tachyarrhythmias respond favorably to magnesium: (1) intractable ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, whether hypo- or normomagnesemic, (2) torsades […]
- [Significance of magnesium in cardiac arrhythmias] - Abstract: Magnesium is of great importance in cardiac arrhythmias. It increases the ventricular threshold for fibrillation. Sinus node refractoriness and conduction in the AV node are both prolonged. Main indications for intravenous application of magnesium are Torsade de pointes tachycardias, digitalis toxicity induced tachyarrhythmias and multifocal atrial tachycardias. Additionally, patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to […]
- Intravenous magnesium for cardiac arrhythmias: jack of all trades - Abstract: Intravenous magnesium has been used to prevent and treat many different types of cardiac arrhythmia. It has diverse electrophysiological actions on the conduction system of the heart; including prolonging sinus node recovery time, and reducing automaticity, atrioventricular nodal conduction, antegrade and retrograde conduction over an accessory pathway, and His-ventricular conduction. Intravenous magnesium can also […]
- Low extracellular magnesium induces epileptiform activity and spreading depression in rat hippocampal slices - Abstract: The effect of low extracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]o) on neuronal activity was studied in rat hippocampal slices. After 20-40 min of perfusion with Mg2+-free medium, when [Mg2+]o declined to approximately 0.1-0.4 mM, spontaneous field potentials developed in the CA1 and CA3 regions, but not in the dentate gyrus. In the CA3 pyramidal cell layer, […]
- Effect of magnesium chloride and magnesium L-aspartate on seizure threshold in rats under conditions of dietary magnesium deficiency - Abstract: We studied the effect of Mg-L-aspartate, MgCL2, and their combinations with vitamin B6, magneB6, and MgSO4 on seizure threshold in rats with dietary Mg2+ deficiency. Mg2+ deficiency was followed by a decrease in the threshold dose of corazol (from 79.20 to 49.48 mg/kg), shortening of the latency of the first jerk (by 33.6%, p=0.012), […]